We now learn the about Binomial Distribution. In particular, in this section, we learn the formula for the binomial density function: \[P \begin{pmatrix} X = r \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} n \\ r \end{pmatrix} p^rq^{n-r}\]
We use binomial distribution as soon as we're dealing with several repetitions of a same experiment, we'll say "\(n\) trials", in which there are:
For such scenarios, we define the Discrete Random Variable \(X\), whose value can be any of the potential number of successes/wins in the experiment.
The binomial density function will allow us to calculate the probability of there being exactly \(r\) successes of the experiment, when repeating it \(n\) times. In other words the binomial density function will allow us to calculate the probability that \(X = r\).
The following example is a typical case of binomial distribution:
When a discrete random variable follows a binomial distribution, with \(n\) trials, in which the probability of a succees is \(p\), we write: \[X \sim B \begin{pmatrix}n,p \end{pmatrix}\]
Given an experiment, which satisfies all the criteria listed above and for which the probability of a success is \(p\). The probability of \(r\) successes in \(n\) trials is: \[P \begin{pmatrix} X = r \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} n \\r \end{pmatrix}p^r.\begin{pmatrix} 1 - p \end{pmatrix}^{n-r}\] If we define a "loss" as \(q=1-p\), then this formula can also be written: \[P \begin{pmatrix} X = r \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} n \\r \end{pmatrix}p^r.q^{n-r}\] Since \(\begin{pmatrix} n \\ r \end{pmatrix} = ^nC_r \) this formula can also be written: \[P \begin{pmatrix} X = r \end{pmatrix} = ^nC_r p^r.q^{n-r}\]
In the following tutorial, we're reminded of this formula and explained how it actually works. Watch it now, by the end of it the binomial distribution formula will be far more meaningful.
We're given a biased coin with which the probability of flipping tails is: \[p = 0.3\] We flip the coing \(5\) times. What is the probability of obtaining exactly \(3\) tails?
We start by defining each of the following: